Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic: How can technologies help to detect and stem the deadly virus?
Coronavirus COVID-19 pandemic: How can technologies help to detect and stem the deadly virus?
A likely bat-borne virus, an undetected Patient Zero, closed borders, a worldwide quarantine, an economic disaster. This is not the new Soderbergh movie – it’s now our reality! The novel coronavirus is set to break Google search records amidst escalating worldwide distress, after COVID-19, the disease caused by this virus, was declared by the World Health Organization as a global pandemic. We cannot say what comes next, but we have a toolbox of technologies that can help restrain virus propagation. Thermal imaging is one of them, along with diagnostics and sanitizing technologies.
一种疑似是蝙蝠病毒，一个未被发现的 "零号病人"，封闭的边境，全球范围内的隔离，一场经济灾难。这不是索德伯格的新电影---这就是我们现在的现实! 在这种新型冠状病毒被世界卫生组织宣布为全球大流行病之后，这种新型冠状病毒将打破谷歌搜索记录，而这种病毒引起的疾病--COVID-19被世界卫生组织宣布为全球大流行病。我们不能说接下来会发生什么，但我们有一个工具箱的技术可以帮助抑制病毒的传播。热成像技术，以及诊断和消毒技术就是身处其中。
Thermal Imaging 热成像技术
Historically, uncooled thermal imaging was first adopted by the commercial market to control passenger health in airports more than 20 years ago. It is bad to see that COVID-19 will make thermal imaging technology popular again. High fever, one of the disease’s main symptoms, can be easily monitored with the help of thermal cameras. This helps in identifying people among huge crowds, for example in airports or train stations. Thermal cameras detect the invisible black body radiation that all humans emit, at a wavelength between 8µm and 14µm. It’s exactly the radiation that these thermal cameras can capture.
Thermal imaging technology was first developed for military, then for commercial applications such as thermography, surveillance, firefighting, automotive and hunting among others. Both thermopiles and microbolometers can be used. According to Yole’s Uncooled IR imagers and detectors 2019 report there were more than 1.5M thermal cameras shipped in 2019, worth more than $4.5B in revenue.
Now, we clearly see that fever detection is driving big demand for thermal cameras, and we will see later this year how the coronavirus will affect the global thermal imaging market. This technology will certainly be more adopted in the future for increased security at borders and in airports. We will probably see more companies developing fever monitoring systems, such as FLIR, HikVision, Guide IR, Zhejiang Dali, Testo, Fluke, Seek Thermal, among many others.
Nevertheless, thermal cameras for early fever screening can only do so much. They can detect a high fever but not the virus itself, of course. For actual detection of the virus, proper diagnostic tests are needed.
PCR-based and Imaging diagnostics 基于PCR和影像诊断
As the number of COVID-19 infections increase every day, the search for fast, reliable, cheap diagnosis is greatly needed.
There are mainly two ways to diagnose a viral respiratory infection such as COVID-19. The first is viral testing kits that use the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the direct diagnosis of the viral genetic content. The second is indirect diagnosis through the use of imaging such as chest Computed Tomography (CT)-scans or ultrasonography. Many of the severe complications from COVID-19 arise from pneumonia, a condition characterized by inflammation of the air spaces in the lungs. This can be seen on CT-scans as “ground-glass opacities”, which is why CT has been used as a diagnostic tool early on in hospitals in China and now everywhere. Because of its high sensitivity, CT is currently the imaging method of choice to diagnose and monitor patients with COVID-19.
All the major CT-scanner players, Siemens, GE, Canon and Philips, are working closely with hospitals and governments worldwide to install new facilities and facilitate the use of CT-scanners in the field. The recent arrival in this market of Chinese players with lower-end scanners might also have a clear impact in this crisis, especially in developing countries.
On the PCR-based diagnostics side, the demand for COVID-19 tests and also for other respiratory pathogen tests to diagnose infected people is increasing rapidly. Indeed, companies offering syndromic respiratory panels have recently observed an increase in their sales, especially in Asia. This is attributed to an increased clinical need right now to rule out infection with other respiratory pathogens, as COVID-19 tests are not widely available yet. It opens up opportunities for large volumes of test production, and several companies like Qiagen, BioMérieux/BioFire, and Randox/Bosch Vivalytic, among others have released tests for the COVID-19.
However, it is legitimate to ask whether the current production capabilities are sufficient to respond to this demand if it reaches millions of tests in the coming weeks. Most companies won’t have the required capabilities, no matter whether they rely on their own production lines or on subcontractors. Certainly, some companies will delay their production of other panels to prioritize the production of COVID-19 and other respiratory panel cartridges.
In this race toward the detection of the symptoms and the virus itself using thermal, PCR and CT scans, people are also looking at how to stem the spread of the virus. While images of people trying to sanitize almost everything through chemical sanitizing are common, another disinfection option is the use of ultraviolet-C (UVC) wavelength LEDs.
UVC LED lighting for disinfection 消毒用UVC LED
In China, authorities are now trying to eradicate the virus by disinfecting as much as possible in the surroundings. Here it is the third stage of the fighting plan against the virus. Indeed, UVC light has the ability to kill the virus and can also be used for sterilizing bacteria. Until now, the UVC light has been mainly used in water reactors for disinfection purpose as the UVC light can break the DNA of viruses and bacteria.
在中国，当局现在正试图通过对周围环境进行尽可能多的消毒来消灭病毒。 这是抗击病毒计划的第三阶段。 实际上，UVC光具有杀死病毒的能力，也可以用于对细菌进行灭菌。 到目前为止，UVC灯主要用于水反应器中以达到消毒目的，因为UVC灯可以破坏病毒和细菌的DNA。
Dimitrios Damianos, PhD joined Yole Développement (Yole) as a Technology and Market Analyst and is working within the Photonics, Sensing & Display division. Dimitrios is daily working with his team to deliver valuable technology & market reports regarding the imaging industry including photonics & sensors. After his research on theoretical and experimental quantum optics and laser light generation, Dimitrios pursued a Ph.D. in optical and electrical characterization of dielectric materials on silicon with applications in photovoltaics and image sensors, as well as SOI for microelectronics at Grenoble’s university (France). In addition, Dimitrios holds a MSc degree in Photonics from the University of Patras (Greece). He has also authored and co-authored several scientific papers in international peer-reviewed journals.
Dimitrios加入Yole Développement (Yole)，担任技术和市场分析师，在光电、传感和显示部门工作。Dimitrios每天和他的团队一起工作，提供有价值的技术和市场报告，包括光电子和传感器等成像行业的技术和市场报告。在研究了理论和实验量子光学和激光产生的理论和实验之后，Dimitrios在法国格勒诺布尔大学攻读了硅上介电材料的光学和电学特性的博士学位，并在光电和图像传感器领域的应用，以及微电子学的SOI。此外，Dimitrios还拥有希腊帕特雷大学的光子学硕士学位。他还在国际同行评议期刊上发表了多篇科学论文。
Sébastien Clerc is a Technology & Market Analyst in Microfluidics, Sensing & Actuating at Yole Développement (Yole). As part of the Photonics & Sensing team, Sébastien has authored a collection of market and technology reports dedicated to microfluidics and other micro-devices for both market segments: medical (including diagnostics, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, drug delivery, medical devices) and industrial (including environment, agro-food). At the same time, he is involved in custom projects such as strategic marketing, technology scouting and technology evaluation to help academic and industrial players in their innovation processes. Thanks to his technology & market expertise, Sébastien has spoken in more than 20 industry conferences worldwide over the last 4 years. Sébastien Clerc graduated from Grenoble Institute of Technology (Grenoble INP – Grenoble, France) with a Master’s degree in Biomedical Technologies. He then completed his academic studies with a Master’s degree in Innovation and Technology Management in the same institute.
Sébastien Clerc是Yole Développement (Yole)的微流控、传感和执行技术与市场分析师。作为光子学和传感团队的一员，Sébastien撰写了一系列市场和技术报告，致力于微流控和其他微设备的市场和技术报告，涉及医疗（包括诊断、制药、生物技术、药物输送、医疗设备）和工业（包括环境、农业食品）两个细分市场。同时，他还参与了一些定制项目，如战略营销、技术侦察和技术评估等，帮助学术界和工业界的企业进行创新。由于他在技术和市场方面的专业知识，Sébastien在过去4年里在全球20多个行业会议上发表过演讲。Sébastien Clerc毕业于法国格勒诺布尔理工学院（格勒诺布尔INP-格勒诺布尔，法国），获得生物医学技术硕士学位之后，他又在该学院完成了创新和技术管理硕士学位的学术研究。
As a Technology & Market Analyst, Medical & Industrial Imaging, Marjorie Villien, PhD., is member of the Photonics & Sensing activities group at Yole Développement (Yole). Marjorie contributes regularly to the development of imaging projects with a dedicated collection of market & technology reports as well as custom consulting services in the medical and industrial fields. She regularly meets with leading imaging companies to identify and understand technology issues, analyze market evolution and ensure the smart combination of technical innovation and industrial application. After spending two years at Harvard and prior to her position at Yole, Marjorie served as a research scientist at INSERM and developed dedicated medical imaging expertise for the diagnosis and follow-up treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and brain cancers. She presents to numerous international conferences throughout the year and has authored or co-authored 12 papers and 1 patent. Marjorie Villien graduated from Grenoble INP (France) and holds a PhD. in physics & medical imaging.
Marjorie Villien博士是Yole Développement (Yole)光电与传感部门的技术与市场分析师，负责医疗与工业成像领域的技术与市场分析。Marjorie定期为成像项目的发展做出贡献，提供专门的市场和技术报告以及医疗和工业领域的定制咨询服务。她定期与领先的成像公司会面，以发现和了解技术问题，分析市场的演变，确保技术创新和工业应用的巧妙结合。在哈佛大学学习两年后，在Yole任职之前，Marjorie曾在INSERM公司担任研究科学家，在阿尔茨海默病、中风和脑癌的诊断和随访治疗方面，她在医学影像学方面的专业技术。她常年在许多国际会议上发表演讲，并撰写或合著了12篇论文和1项专利。Marjorie Villien毕业于法国格勒诺布尔国立医学院，拥有物理学和医学影像学博士学位。
With more than 25+ years’ experience within the semiconductor industry, Eric Mounier PhD. is Fellow Analyst at Yole Développement (Yole). Eric provides daily in-depth insights into current and future semiconductor trends, markets and innovative technologies (such as Quantum computing, Si photonics, new sensing technologies, new type of sensors …). Based on relevant methodological expertise and a strong technological background, he works closely with all the teams at Yole to point out disruptive technologies and analyze and present business opportunities through technology & market reports and custom consulting projects. With numerous internal workshops on technologies, methodologies, best practices and more, Yole’s Fellow Analyst ensures the training of Yole’s Technology & Market Analysts. In this position, Eric Mounier has spoken in numerous international conferences, presenting his vision of the semiconductor industry and latest technical innovations. He has also authored or co-authored more than 100 papers as well as more than 120 Yole’s technology & market reports. Previously, Eric held R&D and Marketing positions at CEA Leti (France). Eric Mounier has a PhD. in Semiconductor Engineering and a degree in Optoelectronics from the National Polytechnic Institute of Grenoble (France).
Eric Mounier博士是Yole Développement (Yole)的分析师，在半导体行业有超过25年的工作经验。他每天针对当前和未来的半导体趋势、市场和创新技术(如量子计算、硅光子、新传感技术、新型传感器等)提出深入的见解。在其相关专业知识和强大的技术背景下，他与Yole团队紧密合作，发现颠覆性的技术。并通过技术和市场报告以及定制咨询项目，分析并提供商业机会。Yole的分析师在公司内部有许多关于技术、方法、最佳实践等方面的研讨会，以确保Yole对技术和市场的分析师培养。任职期间，Eric Mounier曾在许多国际会议上发表过演讲，介绍了他对半导体行业的愿景和最新的技术创新。他还撰写或合著了100多篇论文以及120多份Yole的技术和市场报告。此前，Eric曾在法国CEA Leti公司担任研发和营销职位。Eric Mounier拥有法国格勒诺布尔国立理工学院半导体工程博士学位和光电子学学位。
As part of the Photonics, Sensing & Display division at Yole Développement (Yole), Pierrick Boulay works as Market and Technology Analyst in the fields of Solid State Lighting and Lighting Systems to carry out technical, economic and marketing analysis. Pierrick has authored several reports and custom analysis dedicated to topics such as general lighting, automotive lighting, LiDAR, IR LEDs, UV LEDs and VCSELs. Prior to Yole, Pierrick has worked in several companies where he developed his knowledge on general lighting and on automotive lighting. In the past, he has mostly worked in R&D department for LED lighting applications. Pierrick holds a master degree in Electronics (ESEO – Angers, France).
作为Yole Développement（Yole）光电、传感和显示部门的一员，Pierrick Boulay在固态照明和照明系统领域担任市场和技术分析员，进行技术、经济和市场分析。Pierrick曾撰写了多份报告和定制分析报告，专门针对通用照明、汽车照明、LiDAR、IR LED、UV LED和VCSEL等主题进行分析。在加入Yole之前，Pierrick曾在几家公司工作，他在通用照明和汽车照明领域积累了丰富的知识。在过去，他主要在LED照明应用的研发部门工作。Pierrick拥有电子学硕士学位(法国昂热的ESO - ESEO)。
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